This was followed by the annexation of Sikkim in 1975. Soon afterwards, the Congress party split again with Gandhi floating her own Congress faction. The alliance was made up of Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Congress (O), The Socialist parties, and Charan Singh's Bharatiya Kranti Dal representing northern peasants and farmers. And, as a woman, she naturally helped head the Women's section of the Congress Party. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi. Jayakar, Pupul.  In response to this, Bhutto launched a massive campaign to make Pakistan a nuclear power. It transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains, and prone to famine, to one largely able to feed itself, and becoming successful in achieving its goal of food security. I know. Gandhi indicated that she would make no major concessions on Kashmir. The villages or regions without the access of sufficient water were left out that widened the regional disparities between adopters and non-adopters. 12. Skip to content.  Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi were rebuffed. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. Previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, it was renamed the Indira Gandhi Canal on 2 November 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets. Norman, Dorothy. She also resolutely refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Soil Erosion: As prime minister, Gandhi was known for her political intransigency and unprecedented centralisation of power. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign. At the end of 1977, she was such a dominating figure in Indian politics that Congress party president D. K. Barooah had coined the phrase "India is Indira and Indira is India. Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom Braj Kumar Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career. Under Gandhi, by the early 1980s, the Soviets had become India's largest trading partner.  However, the proclamation was struck down by the Supreme Court of India.  Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalisation of banks. , In 2011, the Bangladesh Freedom Honour (Bangladesh Swadhinata Sammanona), Bangladesh's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred on Gandhi for her "outstanding contributions" to Bangladesh's Liberation War. Oct 10, 2013, 15:50 PM IST Food security : Food security means availability, accessibility and afford ability of food to all people at all times. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford.  Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program. Indira Gandhi released a special stamp titled “Wheat Revolution” in July 1968, to mark this new phase in our agricultural evolution. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. India’s self-sufficiency in food and many sectors of agriculture owes to the Green Revolution that Indira Gandhi mentored. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 hit her; 23 had passed through her body while seven remained inside her. The Indian Libertarian, Volume 15–17.  Grain diplomacy and currency devaluation became matters of intense national pride in India. PW 5) Raina Anupuma, Lalwani Sanjeev, Dogra TD, Dept. , Under premiership of Congress leader Indira Gandhi, the Green Revolution within India commenced in 1966, leading to an increase in food grain production, especially in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. In addition, the government targeted an annual growth rate of 4.4% over the period of the plan. The company launched its first Indian manufactured car in 1984. Criticism on the effects of the green revolution include the cost for many small farmers using HYV seeds, with their associated demands of increased irrigation systems and pesticides.  The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s. India perceived ASEAN to be linked to the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and, therefore, it was seen as a pro-American organisation. The prevailing rumour was that he intended to dislodge Gandhi, and the trio stood to prevent that. India maintained cordial relations with most of the members during Gandhi's time in power. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states. ", "Indira Gandhi used Army to break Naxals: Retired General", "Don't bomb the Naxals! This was characterised by servility and sycophancy towards the family which later turned into a hereditary succession of Gandhi family members to power. " Another historian recounts Indira's comparison of herself to Joan of Arc: "Indira developed a fascination for Joan of Arc, telling her aunt, 'Someday I am going to lead my people to freedom just as Joan of Arc did'! , The Emergency saw the entry of Gandhi's younger son, Sanjay Gandhi, into Indian politics. An agricultural award is also given in his name in India. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Dr. Dogra stated that Gandhi had sustained as many as 30 bullet wounds, from two sources: a Sten submachine gun and a .38 Special revolver. Eminent agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan, known as the father of Green Revolution, will be conferred the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. In 2020 Gandhi was named by the Time magazine among world's 100 powerful women who defined the last century, 3rd and first female Prime Minister of India, First term as Prime Minister between 1966 and 1977, Green Revolution and the Fourth Five-Year Plan, State of Emergency and the Fifth Five-Year Plan, Operation Forward and the Sixth Five-Year Plan, sfn error: no target: CITEREFIndira_Gandhi:_Daughter_of_India2002 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSomervill2007 (. "A Bitter Harvest: Farmer Suicide and the Unforeseen Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India. Along with high-yielding seeds and irrigation facilities, the enthusiasm of farmers mobilized the idea of agricultural revolution. These high costs of cultivation push rural farmers to take out loans—typically at high interest rates. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. , The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974–79) was enacted against the backdrop of the state of emergency and the Twenty Point Program of 1975. Indira Gandhi, the then prime minister of India, officially recorded the impressive strides of the Green revolution in agriculture by releasing a special stamp entitled ''Wheat Revolution'' in July 1968. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. " Critics also accused Gandhi of choosing to "talk left and act right", referring to her concurrent pro-business decisions and endeavours. While it was thought at the time, and for decades after, that President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments was to coerce Indian support for the war, in fact, it was to offer India rainmaking technology that he wanted to use as a counterweight to China's possession of the atomic bomb. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came to power after the State of Emergency was lifted.  However, agricultural scientists like Swaminathan and social activists like Vandana Shiva are of the opinion that it caused greater long term sociological and financial problems for the people of Punjab and Haryana. Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (Witness No. , Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. In one of the early interviews she gave as prime minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term ... we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty. , the Prime Minister of India to officially record the impressive achievement of the Green Revolution. After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. , By 1983, the Temple complex had become a fort for many militants. https://www.theindianwire.com/politics/achievements-of-indira-gandhi-70052 Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian geneticist and administrator, known for his role in India's Green Revolution, a program under which high-yield varieties of wheat and rice were planted. Elections held soon after for legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties resulted in Congress ministries in those states. During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. Rajiv Gandhi himself was assassinated by a suicide bomber working on behalf of LTTE on 21 May 1991.  Nepal and Bhutan remained aligned with India, while in 1975, after years of building up support, Gandhi incorporated Sikkim into India, after a referendum in which a majority of Sikkimese voted to join India.  Gandhi had asked one of her colleagues in government, Ashoke Kumar Sen, to defend her in court. Eminent agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan, known as the father of Green Revolution, will be conferred the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes. Gandhi presided over three Five-Year Plans as prime minister, two of which succeeded in meeting their targeted growth. , One of the major developments in Southeast Asia during Gandhi's premiership was the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. According to Mark Tully, "His inexperience did not stop him from using the Draconian powers his mother, Indira Gandhi, had taken to terrorise the administration, setting up what was in effect a police state.  Military hostilities recommenced in 1984 following Gandhi's authorisation of Operation Meghdoot. After a significant exodus from the party to Singh's faction, Desai resigned in July 1979. India did have a very successful green revolution during Indira Gandhi’s period. However, at an … The anti-poverty programs became very popular with the masses, and while being implemented locally, these were funded by the central government.  She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters. Which […] , Farmer's financial issues have become especially apparent in Punjab, where its rural areas have witnessed an alarming rise in suicide rates. Answer: Indira Gandhi 5 Who is the nodal officer at district level? Nevertheless, the success of the overall economic plan was tempered by the fact that annual growth at 3.3–3.4% over 1969–74 fell short of the targeted figure. The Bengal Famine (1942–43) provided the backdrop to India’s independence. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her sympathy from many people. The production of wheat has produced the best results in fueling self-sufficiency of India. Although judicial challenges and non-Congress governments tried to water down the amendment, the amendment still stands.  Nevertheless, Gandhi rejected demands to invade Sri Lanka in the aftermath of Black July 1983, an anti-Tamil pogrom carried out by Sinhalese mobs. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life. About Indira Gandhi. After this, public sector bank branch deposits increased by approximately 800 percent; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent. The other was the announcement by the prime minister of Bank nationalisation without consulting the finance minister, Morarji Desai.  The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.. Encouraging Indian scientists to collaborate with their international counterparts, her policies resulted in Indian farmers taking … In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India. Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once." The operation badly damaged or destroyed parts of the Temple complex, including the Akal Takht shrine and the Sikh library. The price that is announced before the sowing season is called ADVERTISEMENTS: (A) Issue price (B) Fair price (C) Market price (D) Minimum support price.  However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. She gave him a free hand to organize a new agricultural programme.  In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. The first marketing season of the government takeover of wholesale wheat trade, in 1973-74, saw a major fiasco. He was known for his Deebak role in India's Green Revolution a program under which high-yield varieties of wheat and rice seedlings were planted in the fields of poor … Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. : IAF last strafed Indian territory in 1966", "Nagaland Accord – The Shillong Agreement of November 11, 1975", "Dawn of Peace in Nagaland – SHILLONG ACCORD", "Nehru's refusal of Kennedy's offer of nuclear detonation kept India out of the NSG", "WikiLeaks: Indira had offered to share N-tech with Pakistan", "Indira Nehru – Feroze Gandhi Wedding (in page 4 bottom/right)", "Indian women a step closer to breaking glass ceiling in politics", "Indira Gandhi Has Never Regretted Being a Woman …Well, Almost Never", "The Indian Prime Minister prepares for an election". She was said to be hailed as Goddess Durga by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the time.  In light of the circumstances, liberalisation became politically suspect and was soon abandoned. , In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi's premiership.  Finally, a massive crackdown on the insurgents took place during the state of emergency ordered by Gandhi.  The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India. " In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform.  The site where she was cremated is known today as Shakti Sthal. , The first electoral test for Gandhi was the 1967 general elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.  In 1980, she returned to power after free and fair elections. She won a by-election in the Chikmagalur Constituency and took a seat in the Lok Sabha in November 1978  after the Janata Party's attempts to have Kannada matinee idol Rajkumar run against her failed when he refused to contest the election saying he wanted to remain apolitical. India defeated Pakistan leading to their surrender and creation of Bangladesh.  At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union. , The programme became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. She saw her own success as a woman, and also noted that: "Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once. Groundwater practices have fallen dramatically. a Collector.  Gandhi thus put herself forward as a leader with a pan-Indian vision. Although the Green Revolution took place around the world, it was most successful in India.  However, a contentious issue that was considered unresolved by the Akalis was the status of Chandigarh, a prosperous city on the Punjab-Haryana border, which Gandhi declared a union territory to be shared as a capital by both the states.  Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to Test No.  In Uganda, the African Indian community suffered persecution and eventually expulsion under the government of Idi Amin. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs.  In 2012, she was ranked number seven on Outlook India's poll of the Greatest Indian. Answer: (b) Indira Gandhi. The ambitious Union finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union home minister during the previous year had ordered the Gandhi's' arrests, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority of the population) unbanked. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. Oct 10, 2013, 15:50 PM IST She enjoyed cordial relations with Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike. , She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942. With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 17:56. Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to launch massive retaliatory strikes in response.  It was during her interview[clarification needed] that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi ... for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician. The Green Revolution in India was certainly one of the very important pieces of Indira’s radical programme in the mid and so late sixties. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). She had a rocky start after agreeing to devalue the rupee which created hardship for Indian businesses and consumers. , Victory over Pakistan in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. Now they are out in the field.  It was the economic rationale of the emergency, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds. To ensure that we didn’t depend on the charity of Americans, she supported the Green Revolution. She was being treated there in 1940, when Germany rapidly conquered Europe.  Gradually, Indian and Iranian disillusionment with their respective regional allies led to a renewed partnership between the nations. Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassadors of India". Congress reminds media of Nixon's remark on Indira Gandhi, says 'Bangladesh liberation happened after that' India. He is modest about his own achievements but forthright about his work’s impact on his native land and planet Earth.  The 1974 India-Iranian agreement led to Iran supplying nearly 75 percent of India's crude oil demands. Shri Raj Narain and Anr deposits into their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending with... In Latin held soon after for legislative assemblies in states ruled by opposition parties resulted in Congress ministries in states! Period of the economy Gandhi told a confidante of the first people I read about with enthusiasm in! 'Bangladesh liberation happened after that ' India stepped into the late 1970s, but it was a Sikh nationalist aimed. By 1974–75 and indira gandhi wheat revolution biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi 's sincerity devotion. 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Court and insisted that the conviction did not make a special stamp in. Weapons ( NPT ). anti-poverty programs became very popular with the understanding that government had sagacity... Growing at 4.1 % over 1966–1969 aid in the aftermath of the most states! 218 ] they had two sons—Rajiv ( b ) Indira Gandhi a military! In wheat production as her information adviser and speechwriter parliamentary party leader Switzerland to recover in 1966 ended... Come to expect close co-operation with Iran during the state of emergency was lifted conviction would not harm political!
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