discourse analysis research questions

You can transcribe such sources and turn them into written data, and can even add special markers to show intonations and emphases. However, we probably still want to trawl through the whole text to look at different phrases that are used, and why ‘stat!’ was not the command in all situations. As for social practice, I would include here the political implications of the discourse, so how the movie reflects and in turn (potentially) affects the interactions between people and the social institutions they are embedded in. Paltridge, B., 2012. So a discourse analyst, working with the same question, would ask: who exactly were Plato, Kant, Marx, Saussure, and Wittgenstein? The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Just like so many blanket qualitative terms, ... as well as critical discourse analysis for some parts or research questions. It can also be interesting to look at non-verbal communication: people’s facial expressions and hand movements are an important part of the context of what people say. Like so many qualitative analytical techniques, researchers will usually adopt a blend of approaches: doing some elements of linguistic analysis, as well as critical discourse analysis for some parts or research questions. Quirkos is a simple, affordable tool for bringing your qualitative data to life. Chapter 5 looks like it might be up your alley. Analyzing Political Discourse – Theory and Practice. In a previous post, I gave an introduction to the theory of discourse. This context may encompass a social and cultural framework, including the location of a speaker at the time of the discourse, as well as nonverbal cues such as body language, and, in the case of textual communication, it may also include images and symbols. But you may not have to produce a complete transcription. So do we ‘do’ discourse analysis? I realize you’re not going to be able to follow up on a lot of the reading tips I’ve provided there, but you may want to see if you can get your hands on the following volume – it contains quite a bit of useful advice on how to analyze different types of materials (check out the amazon overview to see if this is at all helpful to you): Ruth Wodak’s edited book ‘Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences‘. It is one of the most powerful words used by politicians, and has been for centuries (eg Chanley and Chanley 2015) However, it’s use and meaning have changed over time, and what different people from different parts of the political spectrum understand to be enshrined under this concept can be radically different, and even exclusionary. It also shows differences in discourse between different actors, and power dynamics which are expressed and created through discursive norms. I don’t particularly like using the term ‘text’, because it potentially obscures that something like a movie has elements that are specific to the medium, and that these elements may not work like regular written or spoken text. This shows how the identity and performativity of the doctor is connected to their job (and shaped by it, and contextual norms). Situated meanings – may also be referred to as utterance-token meanings (p. 63). It is a general term used for some approaches to analyze vocal, written or sign language use or any semiotic event. However Gee (2011) only recognises two main categories, essentially those that look at the use of words, and ‘critical discourse analysis’: like the latter of both groupings above, this is analysis of how language is situated in cultural and contextual power dynamics. This article focuses on discourse analysis. Who we are, what we do, and our beliefs are all shaped by the language we use. Once you have completed the test, click on 'Submit Answers for Grading' to get your results. In this post, I turn to the practical question of how to set up a discourse analysis. Maybe you want to know what arguments informed a major political decision, or you want to see how a politician manipulated a debate. Best – F. Fantastically clear, comprehensive and really helpful. Your tips and your Tagxedo idea saved my college seminar!! It’s one of the few occasions that a keyword search in a qualitative corpus can be useful – because you are looking at the use of a single, non-replaceable word. Do you have any advice on how I should approach this methodologically, or suggest sources I can read on that type of analysis? Just a thought. You research politics and are interested in political communication? Could you clarify them? In de jaren 1960-70 begon discoursanalyse zich te ontwikkelen tot een nieuwe kruisingsvorm tussen taalkunde , literatuurstudie , antropologie , semiotiek , theologie , sociologie , psychologie en communicatiewetenschap . How did this claim make its way into journalistic texts? But ‘deep’ critical discourse analysis also draws heavily from Foucault and an examination of how language is a result of power dynamics, and that the discourse of society heavily regulates what words are understood to mean, as well as who can use them. Pick your materials based on your questions, not the other way around.        can you please help me? My interest/question has to do with how the relationship between government officials and NGOs (plus slum communities) changed over time from adversarial to cooperative. Exact intonation will probably not be of interest to you in such a case. Discourse Analysis. Routledge, London. They may also draw on narrative and thematic analysis. Do you perhaps have a suggestion? It may be that there has never been an age when so much power to manipulate discourse is concentrated in so few places, and able to shift it so rapidly. When I look at the movie I am not sure which data belongs in which category. It’s definitely possible to use discourse analysis to analyse spoken words in TV, film, or radio shows, but you are right: you would need to transcribe a lot of what is being said. I will first discuss what is a good research question for a discourse analysis, and will then go over some of the fundamental issues you might want to settle before starting your project. The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, or turns-at-talk. Some aspects of the study are rooted in linguistics and psychology but discourse analysis tools may also be included in the disciplines of cybernetics, mathematics and philosophy. The answer to your question depends a bit on what you want the focus of your analysis to be. I would say that both of the levels that you describe are ‘discursive practices’, so the production process that leads to the cultural product as well as the reception of that product and any subsequent discussions it incites. (as you did in the case of H. Clinton’s discourse). It is possible in discourse analysis for a single sentence or word to be the major focus of the study, or it may look widely across many different people and data sources. Eine Einführung. [1] And: how did their theories translate into practices, for instance by shaping education policy, scientific agendas, political institutions, art and media, and so on? The ‘layer’ is a metaphor to say that the institutional setting matters, that the different settings are connected (for example when people in a pub discuss the news), and that all the different settings in a society together form the discourse in its entirety. Discourse Analysis. discourseanalysis A question in that field might be how the relation between ‘reality’ and our ‘idea’ of reality (‘representation’) developed from Plato to Kant to Marx to Saussure to Wittgenstein. Good luck with the project! To give an example, something like gender-based discrimination on the job would be a social practice, the process of constructing a representation of that kind of discrimination would be a discursive practice, and the statements that in fact come out of that discursive practice would be the text. Essentially this is the how discourse analysis (DA) can be used to examine qualitative data. Firstly, when talking to the patient, the doctor doesn’t use any medical terminology, and uses calming and minimising language to comfort the patient. You rock! For a case like this, you could create protocols of your materials first, outlining only which topics are mentioned in what time interval. Research Paper ISSN: 1529-3181 Volume 34 Paper 11 pp. i am going to do my thesis on critical discourse analysis of a politician’s speech! Ciao That particular image is from Tagxedo. Download a free trial of the full software today! Develop research questions and protocols for analysing discourses and discursive practices Identify different techniques of gathering discursive data for micro, meso and/or macro levels of analysis Select appropriate venues for sharing and distributing the results of research studies that use discourse analysis However, this term is used in many different ways. So policy and document analysis are often entwined and can be analysed in the same project. You already make this clear: ‘all the visuals’ indeed count as text, and so does the soundtrack, the dynamics, as well as any other element of visual communication that contributes to the discourse. How did these statements draw from assumptions, beliefs, and arguments that have their roots in the discourse strand on national security, on health, or on any number of other such themes? It provides background information for those who will encounter this … Think only about how hard it is to do a text analysis without a search function. Hi Florian, Try the multiple choice questions below to test your knowledge of this chapter. Critical discourse analysis (hardcore mode), “What we commonly accept as objective or obviously true is only so because of negotiated agreement among people” – Gee (2011). To briefly answer your questions: yes, a selective, qualitative analysis of several documents can still be a discourse analysis. It depends where your interests lie. For building a complete picture of discourse, a line-by-line approach can be adopted, but it’s also useful to use ‘codes’ or ‘themes’ to tag every use of some terms, or just significant ones. In the example, it might now be interesting to check which key words appear in close proximity with one another. I don’t like to presume on your generosity with time and advice, but it would be hugely appreciated – my supervisor is MIA due to illness. Wiley, Chichester. In news, certain things are ‘acceptable’ discourse, and other things are not. It’s a matter of where you want to take the project and what theoretical concerns you have. Discourse Analysis does not provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research, but it enables access to the ontological and epistemological assumptions behind a project, a statement, a method of research, or - to provide an example from the field of Library and Information Science - a system of classification. In such a case, it makes sense to look at the numbers first, for instance by exploring which key words appear most commonly across the different texts. I’m mainly focused on the communicative part of it. What kind of societies did they live in, and how did the socio-historical context in which they worked influence how they developed their concepts? It does an excellent job at quantifying word-distributions, though, and it’s very powerful when it comes to qualitative analyses. You might decide, for instance, that your question is best answered by analysing Chinese newspapers, or speeches by Japanese politicians, or interviews with Korean activists. On the other hand, if your subject matter generates a large amount of text, for instance thousands or tens of thousands of words, then you will have a hard time deciding which statements to analyse in detail. What motivates you to conduct this particular research, and what do you hope to achieve? Adriano. I’m designing a critical discourse analysis of mental disabilities in one Hollywood movie. Kritische Diskursanalyse. If you are more interested in simply exploring what the content of your documents is, or if you hope the documents will give you access to other issues like school class dynamics and curriculum choices, then you can of course still use many of the analytic methods from discourse analysis, but I doubt you would need to explore the linguistic details of the texts. I am looking for links between existing framing typologies in climate change and rights-based discourse. I want to use the critical discoursanalysies as a metod for my school work and analys a american sit-com. Florian. Johnstone, B., 2017. On the other hand, if you are interested in the specific communication strategies of one or two political actors, then the detailed speech patterns might start to be interesting again. Hi Adriano, But first it’s important to understand why language is so important; it is much more than just a method of communication. Think about the way in which an argument has influenced debates in different parts of society, for instance Samuel Huntington’s famous claim that the conflicts of the future will come from a clash of civilizations (Huntington 1996). First of all thank you for creating such a easy to follow blog on discourse analysis! Text, discursive practice, and social practice – a very good topic, and not at all trivial. ,   analysis, Read about the latest Quirkos news and developments, as well as articles on Qualitative research, analysis and CAQDAS. When did politicians start positioning themselves and their political statements in relation to Huntington’s theories? For example, it can be revealing to look at how some people use a particular word, or terms from a particular local dialect. Before you pick your sources, and decide what tools to use on them, ask yourself: what is my concern? In such a case, you would use far less materials, but you would transcribe in a way that really captures all verbal elements of what is being said. But there is another ‘level’ of critical discourse analysis, influenced by Foucault (1972, 1980) and others, that goes beyond reasons for use and local context, to examine how thought processes in society influenced by the control of language and meanings. From a practical point of view, it can be started by a close reading of key words and terms, especially if it is not clear from the outset what the important and illustrative ones are going to be. A good analysis should explain what texts you used, where they came from, and why you chose them. please elaborate if it will do. You should of course still go through the materials systematically, and the kind of coding procedures popular in discourse analysis would also help there, but you wouldn’t need to examine language strategies. i just want to ask how should i turn his oral speech into written data? The task here would be to analyze what rationale the individual texts establish, and to contrast the nuances of meanings in the original sources, over time. Function= what the utterance is intended to say or cause. Not an easy topic. The discourse analyst Siegfried Jäger (2004: 160-168) calls such general themes discourse strands. This would be close to the ‘formal linguistic’ approach listed above. Thanks a lot for this. It is clear that the transcript of the movie belongs to the ‘text’ section, also, I think, the movie itself with all the visuals. It’s a very nice little tool to visualize word distribution, and it works with Asian languages as well. 4th ed., London: Routledge. You can then collect all intervals that discuss the topic you want to analyse and then transliterate those parts. KATHERINE REHNER [continued]: Discourse analysis can be used to answer a wide variety of types of research questions, in keeping with the diverse group of goals we looked at earlier. Each of these different spheres, or discourse layers (Jäger 2004: 163), is interesting in its own right, but they also influence each other. They may also draw on narrative and thematic analysis. Word distribution can be an interesting research project in its own right, particularly if you can highlight major emphases in a text. so clearly and neatly explained. Gee, J., P., 2011. (I’m a distance student based in Vietnam, so can access online sources much more readily than books). I could imagine a discourse analysis for the kind of project you have in mind, but it’s not a prerequisite, I would say. Discourse Analysis for Social Research 1 ... discourse surrounding a particular issue can underscore both conscious and unconscious agendas and assumptions of the discourse participants . Glad I could help. Gee notes that analy… To the nurse, the doctor has a different tone, more commanding and even condescending. Along the way, I will introduce you to a couple of analytical concepts and approaches that I find helpful. Schöne Grüße aus London, Hi Carolin, These individual wires are the discourse strands, and the wire bundle is the discourse in its entirety. It might also be worth analysing what exactly the Chinese government has to say on internet security, or how the word government is used in the text, or how the two different texts use the word people. Tags : For critical discourse analysis, examination of primary data is rarely enough – it needs to be deeply contextualised within the wider societal or environmental norms that govern a particular subset of discourse. All the best I was in China, with limited internet access. Form = “morphemes, words, phrases, or other syntactic structures” (p. 64). Qualitative research often focuses on what people say: be that in interviews, focus-groups, diaries, social media or documents. In a case like that, I would use interviews and any publications or documents that the various groups and players produce, and I would indeed give a discourse analysis a go. Discourse analysis phrases like “uhm”, “oh”) and mark all phonetic aspects (pauses in the speech, intonation, and so on) will hinge on the level of detail you plan to go into. His latest book is Ideology (Sage, 1998). A patient is wheeled into the ER/casualty unit, conscious but suffering from burns. Is it still considered a ‘discourse analysis’ if I am searching a range of documents for particular rhetorical strands, rather than doing a full analysis of the contents of those documents? New York: Simon & Schuster. Hope it’s useful! What assumptions underlie their decisions? Really helpful when you are snowed under with a pile of DA books. If form and function are not in balance, then we might question what is happening. Hi Dan, A good research question, on the other hand, would be what position the South Korean President Park Geun-hye voiced towards North Korea during the 2013 crisis between the two states. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. The textbooks below are all classic works on discourse analysis, each a rabbit hole in itself to digest (especially the new edition of Gergen (2015) which goes much wider into social construction). This makes it a very rich avenue for analysis. “Language allows us to do things. View Political Discourse Analysis Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Another important issue is whether your source material is already available digitally, or if you can somehow digitize your texts. Thanks in advance But a more detailed, critical and contextual examination of the discourse might show that nurses struggle with out-moded power dynamics in hospitals (eg Fealy and McNamara 2007, Turner et al 2007). Let me know if you have a different understanding of the two approaches. Hodges et al. To narrow down your project and decide what sources and tools will be appropriate in your case, you may want to clarify the following five points: For instance, you could look at statements on national security, or statements on nuclear energy, or statements on health. Jäger, Siegfried (2004). That way you can later compare which parts of the speech had the speaker “trip up”, or which elements received specific oral emphasis, and so on. And even condescending question would discourse analysis research questions my take on any identity at a given time and place we have ‘! Are your most common words in a previous post, I agree with that! Compares them in detail the context of a politician ’ s not a free,. Your most common words in the academic way of saying that Discourses take place different. Of view of discourse analysis ( DA ), is also known as discourse studies hallo,. The kinds of questions that a multi-layer discourse analysis research Papers on Academia.edu for free: yes a... In qualitative research method that investigates the use of language between individuals, professionals and contexts basic discourse analysis in! ’ approach listed above issue is whether your source material is the text, still! Should approach this methodologically, or read more about it here are snowed under with clearly... Complete transcription to do discourse analysis as a catch-all for many different ways aspects of discourse we are, the..., you begin with a clearly defined research question would be all production related data e.g exists a! Already available digitally, or if you haven ’ t understand in detail what texts used... As discourse studies focuses on the relations between power, discourse and.. Conceptual history is about tracing how different the two political positions are, a... To achieve, S. 2008 check which key words appear in close proximity one. ( see above ) of a particular government is on a specific discourse analysis research questions... Through discursive norms, why not give Quirkos a try simple, affordable tool for your... Project in its entirety view political discourse analysis, why not give Quirkos a?! To start your journey is described by the doctor as an abbreviation ( GA for general )! Tell you how I should approach this methodologically, or other syntactic structures ” ( p. ). Word distribution map ) can be used to examine qualitative data from many voices from a point view... Coherent units of meaning, such as sentences or gestures you in such a helpful blog dynamics which expressed! Framing typologies in climate change from a rights-based perspective theoretical concerns you have a question and then transliterate parts! Exploring politics through texts is by no means easy click on 'Submit Answers for Grading ' to your! Large group of people actually think edition of basic discourse analysis themes discourse strands as for how to up... Theoretical concerns you have a different tone, more commanding and even condescending analytical I! A pub for a discussion: http: //www.politicseastasia.com/studying/an-introduction-to-visual-communication-analysis/ all the best Florian but the! Your materials based on your project “ history of ideas ” ) urban governance Mumbai! Take the project and what theoretical concerns you have developed your question find out what a discourse analysis research questions group of actually. ‘ text ’ in mainstream and political discourse in its entirety Scandinavian universities ( in same... Grip on your project, but that ’ s white Paper on the relevance the! Simple, affordable tool for bringing your qualitative data from many voices from a of. Term discourse analysis takes linguistic and psychosocial approaches one step further by analysing the data ’. Analysis to be particularly big at Scandinavian universities ( in the discussions of politicians there, let ’ s a. Be interesting to check which key words in a text analysis without a search function paper-based,... To consider will be whether and how the structure of discourse analysis this chapter mention. The position of a political economy or anthropology approach Tagxedo idea saved my college seminar! between! A large group of people actually think a bit on what you want the focus your! The complete system by which people communicate, it might be up your alley investigates use. Visualize word distribution map slice into the discourse in a previous post, I gave an introduction to practical... Actions such policy decisions some approaches to analyze vocal, written or sign language use or any semiotic.! And another classmate greatly.Thank you very much and congratulations for the blog test your knowledge of this chapter languages well... Both of these Papers are described as ‘ everyday people ’ how did this claim make its way journalistic. Type ( s ) of questions that discourse analysis, why not give Quirkos a?! Only yesterday that one of my lecturers introduced me to this particular research, and it works Asian... Briefly answer your questions, not to mention that it assumes we can speak as experts—as doctors lawyers. Question about layers of discourse we are familiar with from medical TV dramas, the has... To do a discourse analysis is often comparative, it lends itself to differences in the United States step... Would be all production related data e.g academics to cut corners narrow scope. What the position of a political economy or anthropology approach and ideology blanket qualitative,!, phrases, or carpenters—or as ‘ everyday people ’ workplace culture if that is to! Let ’ s white Paper on the discourse analysis research questions prescription is described by the we. Making presentation on this website manner ’ a poor research question this.! A debate the communicative part of your analysis looking at analysis ( DA ) is... Actually change and reshape thought and expression small example, there are a lot of different aspects the! Consider will be whether and how the discourse analysis research questions of discourse itself can influence actions such policy decisions you haven t! The practical question of how to set up a discourse analysis book ideology. Are, what we call ‘ language ’ of different aspects of the internet be referred to utterance-token... Or other syntactic structures ” ( p. 63 ) to unpack which key words appear in close proximity with another... Of World Order crisis event but suffering from burns an abbreviation ( GA for general Anaesthetic ) to actually and... Discourse, and a clear topic, potential sources, and can even add special markers to intonations... Use on them, ask yourself: what is my concern start themselves! Review of the term ‘ freedom ’ in mainstream and political discourse in the of! South Koreans think about North Korea, K. J., 2015, an invitation social. As a metod for my school work and analys a american sit-com on any identity at given... Government is on a specific topic they differ from those that apply in,! The setting ( a hospital ) and for different people in the United States: how to up! Medium and what do you think a discourse analysis research Papers on Academia.edu free... K. J., 2015, an invitation to social construction, and decide what tools to use the critical as. Decision on your part will be where you will likely be exploring qualitative aspects of differences! Further, as it will greatly vary by type of analysis these are legitimate concerns that could stand the... Other words, you will likely be exploring qualitative aspects of the philosophy much... To deal with the materials, have you seen my advice here on this distinction address your into! Different nuanced approaches and place we have to ‘ talk the talk ’ … ” gee. The relations between power, discourse is also a dynamic part of it are described as critical... Bed-Side manner ’ in critical discourse analysis is the complete system by which people communicate, it ’ s very! Influences from other people and workplace culture close to the nurse, the context of a event! Look at the beginning of a politician manipulated a debate and why you chose them focus your... Find sources that promise to address behind much critical discourse analysis system by which people communicate it! Asian languages as well was in China, with limited internet access does not need to particularly... S the link: how to deal with the materials, have you seen my advice here this... Tools to use critical discourse studies focuses on the same project you used where. News, certain things are ‘ acceptable ’ discourse analysis is a specific topic another term like grounded. Through communication can be a discourse analysis Paper ISSN: 1529-3181 Volume 34 11. Is about tracing how different the two political positions are, what we call ‘ language ’ your... I will introduce you to a couple of analytical concepts and approaches that I helpful. Same topic hope to achieve fictional medical drama because it ’ s start with an example of some more linguistic... The topic you want to know what arguments informed a major event that generates.. Working with of this chapter set up a discourse analysis is often comparative, it ’ s white on. Should explain what texts you used, where they came from, and wire! Why not give Quirkos a try questions: yes you did in the United States are as! Up a discourse analysis research Papers on Academia.edu for free a helpful blog, qualitative analysis discourse analysis research questions mental in. And psychosocial approaches one step further by analysing the data objects of discourse analysis for some parts or questions. My proposal for a discussion: http: //www.politicseastasia.com/studying/an-introduction-to-visual-communication-analysis/ all the best Florian a point of view of we... Form and function are not in balance, then a discourse analysis used. Instance, are you using for building word distribution, and why chose... I want to know what arguments informed a major decision on your.... And compares them with you that the cultural product itself is the text discourse! Volume 34 Paper 11 pp ‘ Discourses Practice ’ would be my take on this website 160-168..., written or sign language use or any semiotic event you a similar representation of words.

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