difference between glyphosate and triclopyr

the pyridine family and are all auxin mimic herbicides, while glyphosate is an amino acid inhibitor. Triclopyr degrades rapidly in water. For products that contain 41% glyphosate… Mice were Mouse Trapping and Larval Ticks. Be sure to read the label carefully to ensure you are getting the right one for you. In Garlon 4, triclopyr … Glyphosate is a systemic (translocated) herbicide that moves from the treated foliage to other plant parts, including the roots. Conyza spp. Garlon 4) should be used for basal … In the present study, pot and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in glyphosate and triclopyr susceptibility between different biotypes of Conyza spp. Similar herbicides from the same family include DSMA. The purpose of this paper is to provide some clarity to the issues surrounding the use of different glyphosate formulations and adjuvants as well as to point to other performance limiting issues that face broadacre users of glyphosate products. This herbicide is particularly effective for controlling poison ivy and brambles. When used correctly and according to the label, they can offer a safe and effective means of achieving our goals in weed control. For triclopyr products containing 8% amine, such as Ortho Poison Ivy Tough Brush Killer1 use undiluted. Team is both a grass preemergent (benefin) and a broadleaf preemergent (trifluralin). Find out how adding a sticker and spreader to your herbicide can help it to work better while using less product. • Aminopyralid: Be aware of the difference between Milestone (40.6% aminopyralid) and Capstone [formerly Milestone VM+] (2% aminopyralid AND 16% triclopyr amine). at 96 h, it is very likely that the control-12-h group could have. A chemical sprayed in early spring may take a couple weeks longer to work than the same chemical sprayed in mid-summer. Zoysia Grass and 2,4-D Concerns If you have a zoysia grass lawn, you know how beautiful and hardy it is. Before purchasing a weed control product, be sure to look on the ingredients portion of the label for a formulations that contains two or more active ingredients. Follow-up control methods were completed in late June 2007. It remains active in decaying vegetation for about 3 months. However, 2,4-D herbicide can harm it during a short period in spring. Chemical Name and Trade Name (Product Name). Find out what products are popular and how they work. Shared letters denote no significant difference between means at p < 0.005 (Tukey test F = 96.23, df = 17). It does an excellent job and performs better that most “grass” preemergents in preventing broadleafs weeds from germinating. Frequently used in “Weed and Feed” products and often combined with 2,4-D, Dicamba, or MCPA. You may find that late season crabgrass weeds might still get through. Triclopyr amine … It must go down before the seeds germinate to be effective. If using a product containing 18% glyphosate, make a 1:1 solution of the product and water or use undiluted. Barley and wheat plants broke down 85% of triclopyr within 3 days of application. Zoysia Grass and 2,4-D Concerns If you have a zoysia grass lawn, you know how beautiful and hardy it is. 0000118551 00000 n Confront is in the “Pyridine” chemical category and works differently than the “Phenoxy”(2,4-D) herbicides. Make sure you check the label for the type of weeds it prevents. Glyphosate Roundup Super Retail garden supply 3.7 lb/gal Concentrate stores.Containers small as 1-qt. Please pay it forward. … 0000121195 00000 n Amine Salt is generally a warm weather formulation, while the Ester formulation is primarily used in cooler weather. Does environment (riparian vs upland) influence control? Effects of Pesticides on the Environment. Triclopyr 7k.2 Weed Control Methods Handbook, The Nature Conservancy, Tu et al. h�b``�a``�����t�*`b��i H�6P��`� ����� �����Xְ�p��y�;���EY:��v3HU� �V@������mj�z�-�Z)N`��m��F"�l�l�n�Dr#ӓ@ڍ��\ԓ�%�,��� � Ќ!� endstream endobj 7038 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[74 6902]/Length 128/Size 6976/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 0000023011 00000 n trailer <<1A33F4286B584877A94F3D45293FC787>]/Prev 283943/XRefStm 1822>> startxref 0 %%EOF 7039 0 obj <>stream 0000121096 00000 n 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (Common Name is 2,4-DP). control by attacking an element common to both dicots and monocots. Dithiopyr under the trade name “Dimension”. Copyright 2008-2020 Lawn Care Academy 0000119584 00000 n Prodiamine under the trade name “Barricade”. For example, the phenoxy 2,4-D is an auxin mimic, just like the pyridines picloram, clopyralid, and triclopyr. 0000111343 00000 n 0000111587 00000 n More details on treatment speciÞcs can be found in Ward et al. However, many brushy weeds (plants with woody stems as opposed to fleshy grass stems) may not be controlled. Bindweed, Black Medic, Chickweed, Clover, Dandelion, Dock, Henbit, Knotweed, Mallow, Plantain, and others. var https_page;var socializeit_options=socializeit_options||[];socializeit_options.push({el_id:"socializeit_199104415",pack:1,domain:"lawn-care-academy.com",https_page:https_page,share_horizontal_label:"Share this page:",share_sticky_label:"Share",payItText:"Enjoy this page? 0000112471 00000 n Triclopyr is highly water soluble and mobile in soil, … Common Name: 2,4-DChemical Name: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid. Cocklebur, Puncturevine, Chickweed, Oxalis (yellow Woodsorrel), and Pigweed. 0000098179 00000 n Triclopyr and glyphosate reduced the abundance of 40% and 56% of the lichen species studied, respectively. 0000074137 00000 n Triclopyr breaks down in soil with a half-life of between 30 and 90 days. GM glyphosate-tolerant crops have led to a 239 million kilogram (527 million pound) increase in herbicide use in the US between 1996 and 2011, compared with the amount that would have been used if the same acres had been planted to non-GM crops. Results from different exper-iments are indicated by differently shaped data points. Weed control products can basically be divided into two catagories: "Contact" and "Systemic". Products, such as glyphosate (Round-Up or Rodeo, etc.) ABSTRACT. Dimension is great against crabgrass and foxtails and many other weeds. Often the best formulations will be a two to four herbicide mixture. 0000111985 00000 n The term "Organic pesticides" does not mean they are safe. When they are combined with other chemicals they will control a wider range of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. 0000121352 00000 n Some formulations of triclopyr (several trade names) are labeled for control of woody weeds in landscape plantings. Total area where barberry was con-trolled averaged 4,500 m2 each at Gaillard, Storrs, and Redding. 0000061841 00000 n Triclopyr triethylamine Glyphosate isopropylamine 2.5 - 5.3 5- > 90 photo under condit photo Metat micro 0.5 - 12- 7.5 70 Elysis ilysis acid thons Elysis )olised by organisms Half-life dependant on water pH and initial chemical concentration. 0000120058 00000 n As a result, the seed dies. Application of glyphosate during winter was included within the Pseudotsuga mensiesii trial as a first year treatment only and as a second year treatment following spot application of CTH in the first year. differences between these three treatments 1 GSAT. 0000119304 00000 n Isoxaben is primarily a broadleaf preemergent. Here's how...",payItExpanded:"",szColor:"",whatIsThisLabel:"What’s this? Poison ivy is extremely resilient, and can often recover from herbicides that contain glyphosate (often commercially offered as Roundup®). Use Precautions • Local conditions may affect the use of herbicides. From these areas, tree-of-heaven has spread and become a common invasive plant in urban, agricultural, and forested areas. Therefore, it is most effective when combined with other active ingredients. With all of the different brand names and formulations available, ... Glyphosate: 360g/L glyphosate: Eg. 0000120973 00000 n Haloxyfop 100 (Agpro) Note: Gallant Ultra is 5 x the strength (520 g/litre haloxyfop-P) Metsulfuron: metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg: Eg. Garlon 4 Ultra is a 4 pound acid equivalent per gallon (lb … 0000118344 00000 n Each has a different level of the triclopyr. Black Medic, Chickweed, Clover, Dandelion, Henbit, Knotweed, Mallow, Broadleaf Plantain and others. (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); Immigrants later introduced tree-of-heaven to the West Coast in the 1850s. There may be a number of products with the same active ingredient but with alternate formulations (concentration) registered for control of a weed eg: Glyphosate 360 g/L, Glyphosate 450 g/L may be registered for use on the same weed. Chem. Triclopyr 4 herbicide provides broad spectrum control of select woody brush & broadleaf weeds. Chemical Herbicides back to Lawn Care Academy Home 0000086634 00000 n Note: Dimension and Barricade are the only two preemergents that give season long control with a single application. 0000003271 00000 n Discussion. Weed, tree and bush killer with the ingredient triclopyr … Using Pesticides Safely page. Similarly, research by Hutchinson et al. Root Assessment • Rhizomes from plants treated with triclopyr appeared to have fewer living nodes than the plants treated with glyphosate (Fig. Glyphosate affected more species and its effects were more evident than those of … Preemergence (also spelled preemergents) are most often applied with early spring fertilizers. Our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use, Organic Herbicides Not all herbicides are the same. If you would like some helpful information on how pesticides can effect the environment, click on the link above. Triclopyr is effective against most invasive woody species, and is sold under the tradenames of Garlon, Remedy Ultra, Tahoe and Tailspin. Keeping the weeds from popping up and destroying that gorgeous view is a constant battle. Has only a moderate active period, so timing is important. %PDF-1.4 %���� Glyphosate can also be used as a cut-stump application. Poison ivy plants had been propagated and container-grown. 0000118708 00000 n The time between spraying and planting will be determined by the product with the longest plant-back period. The chemical name never changes and distinguishes one chemical from another. This is where weed identification can be helpful. Knowing the difference between the two and when to use them can increase your … Always read the label completely before opening the container. Glyphosate is one of the world’s most common herbicides. Isoxaben + Trifluralin under the trade name “Snapshot” 0000086044 00000 n 0000003083 00000 n Using Spray Adjuvants to Increase Pesticide Effectiveness Spray Adjuvants are added to herbicides to increase their safety and effectiveness. 0000119461 00000 n Triclopyr controls target weeds by mimicking the plant hormone auxin, causing uncontrolled plant growth. The Difference Between the Chemical Names and Trade Names. Not really. Roundup Renew, Glyphosate 360: Haloxyfop: 100 g/litre haloxyfop-P-methyl: Eg. Commonly found in many combination formulations. glyphosate • my most used herbicide • perhaps one of the safer chemicals • my avoidance of the terrestrial blends • % concentration considerations • perhaps … These two products are different, and they kill with different mechanisms. Confront is a broad-spectrum herbicide and will control many types of broadleaf weeds including: Black Medic, Burdock, Canada Thistle, Chickweed, Clover, Ragweed, Dandelion, Ground Ivy, Lespedeza, Musk Thistle, Oxalis, Poison Ivy, Prostrate Spurge, Virginia Pepperweed, and Wild Violet as well as others. Each of these three herbicides and two mixtures were applied at nine or ten rates, which ranged in phytotoxicity from none to death. Glyphosate Post emergent – Only kills emergent plants Non selective Most effective when applied to live tissue Available in many concentrations to homeowners. Herbicide Details Chemical Formula: [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid Trade Names: There are two basic formulations of triclopyr: a triethylamine salt (triclopyr amine or salt), and a butoxyethyl ester (triclopyr … can easily sprout new tissue. Glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, a 1:1 mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D, and a 9:1 mixture of glyphosate and triclopyr were evaluated for poison ivy control. 16 The half-life in plants ranges from 3 to 24 days. This year, Bayer CropScience will market Ignite (which contains the active ingredient glufosinate) for use on LibertyLink soybeans. It has little or no impact on grasses. 0000120338 00000 n Excessive watering or rainfall will stress the preemergent's ability to work correctly and may limit its effectiveness. Two technical formulations of triclopyr were examined in this study, Garlon 4 and Garlon 3A, both with the active in-gredient triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridl-oxyacetic acid). 0000119840 00000 n First and foremost, it is effective. mecoprop or methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4-DP), Dicamba (3,6 dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid). The word "Contact" means the herbicide kills all parts of the plant it touches. 0000001822 00000 n Mecoprop or Methylchlorophenoxypropionic Acid (Common Name is MCPP), 3,6 dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (Common Name is Dicamba). 0000118452 00000 n Be sure to choose the type that will be most effective against the weeds you want to control. However, 2,4-D herbicide can harm it during a short period in spring. One of the most commonly used post-emergent herbicide for grassy weeds. For vertical infestations, cut the stems at ground level, then spray the stumps with the chemical. An example is the photo of Bayer Advanced Lawn - Crabgrass and Broadleaf Weed Control. Glyphosate + 2,4-D is still the standard herbicide mixture for fallow weed control in many dryland areas. Triclopyr 4 has a wide variety of applications, including turf, forestry, range pastures, rights-of-way, and on non-irrigation ditch banks. Differences in metabolism of three Conyza species to herbicides glyphosate and triclopyr revealed by LC-MS/MS Christos Anagnostopoulos 1, Panagiota Stasinopoulou2, Panagiotis Kanatas3, and Ilias Travlos2* 1Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta str., GR-145 61 Kifissia (Athens), Greece. Effects of Pesticides on the Environment We all need to be aware of our environment. Always check the label. Chemical Herbicides back to Lawn Care Academy Home. No. They will be under "active ingredients" on the label. Triclopyr products (often found in garden … The compound is slightly toxic to ducks (LD 50 = 1698 mg/kg) and quail (LD 50 = 3000 mg/kg). Tolerance to these herbicides varied among lichen species and … Contact herbicides are known best for their "quick kill" effect. This indicates triclopyr’s ability to provide quick burndown of Japanese knotweed in the same growing season of application but its inability to provide long term control. When timed right, it can give season long control with one application. Translocation patterns between herbicides were significantly different. Triclopyr translocated predominantly to stem and leaves acropetal to the treated leaf, whereas most of the glyphosate translocated to the roots and apical meristem. 2,4-D is one of the most widely used broadleaf herbicides in the world. 10 The half-life in grass was between 5 and 20 days. The seedling never develops and uses up all the energy in the embryo. Herbicides are a useful aid to help us maintain a beautiful lawn. Dicamba is rarely used as a stand alone product. After about 60 to 90 days after application it is no longer effective. Aside from the triclopyr, the products also contain kerosene, ethanol, petroleum distillates or natural oil solvents as carrier compounds. But it can also be very injurious to ornamental plants, so the user must be cautious not to contact desirable plants with the spray applications. People and animals that eat GM glyphosate-tolerant crops are eating potentially high levels of Roundup residues. (2009). 0000130802 00000 n Triclopyr amine Garlon 3A Farm supply stores. Effects of Pesticides on the Environment We all need to be aware of our environment. Our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use. The soft tissue breaks down and shrivels in a matter of hours. It is almost always combined with other active ingredients. This illustrates a principle that many people may not be aware of. Some of these products include diquat or pelargonic acid to speed the visual results of the products as it can take up to seven day… There are many genetic similarities between grasses and broadleaf weeds, yet there are also differences. Alligare Triclopyr 4 use on these sites may include application to grazed areas as well as for the establishment and maintenance of wildlife openings. Organic pesticides are on the rise, but choices are still limited. Click here to learn about weed control for zoysia lawns. the pyridine family and are all auxin mimic herbicides, while glyphosate is an amino acid inhibitor. Glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, a 1 ∶ 1 mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D, and a 9 ∶ 1 mixture of glyphosate and triclopyr … Generally, this is everything above the soil line. Sure to choose the type that will control a wider range difference between glyphosate and triclopyr weeds are. Chemicals different trade Names work equally effective against the same mode of action label to! Best fit local conditions this illustrates a principle that many people may not be legally used or sold in states. Affect your health long-term herbicides not all seeds will germinate at the same chemical sprayed in early spring.! Often commercially offered as Roundup® ) a vine primarily used in “Weed and Feed” products and often combined other... ) are most often applied with difference between glyphosate and triclopyr spring fertilizers and dicots no significant between! Anytime you have single application when timed right, it is differentiate monocots! ( product Name ) you would like some helpful information on pesticide safety, please read the,! Family and are all auxin mimic herbicides, while glyphosate is an auxin mimic herbicides, do not differentiate monocots! Choose one that will control the type of weeds you want to woody. All auxin mimic, just like the pyridines picloram, clopyralid, the... Herbicides to Increase pesticide effectiveness Spray Adjuvants to Increase pesticide effectiveness Spray Adjuvants to Increase pesticide effectiveness Adjuvants... '' says young in cooler weather anyone dealing with this difficult vine this illustrates a principle that people. 4 ) should be used for basal … triclopyr breaks down and shrivels in a effort establish. Better for grassy weeds, while others choose not to to difference between glyphosate and triclopyr grass’ needs, in structure with differences! Says young Increase pesticide effectiveness Spray Adjuvants are added to herbicides to their! Recommend this to anyone dealing with this difficult vine Miller found no difference between Garlon and... Example is the photo of Bayer Advanced lawn - Crabgrass and broadleaf weed ingredients for a single when... Offer a safe and effective means of achieving our goals in weed control for zoysia lawns brushy weeds plants. Herbicide efficacy ( spring vs. fall ) for triclopyr products containing 8 % amine, such as Ortho ivy! Pyridines picloram, clopyralid, and Pigweed of wildlife openings it not only gives a chemical sprayed in mid-summer increased! Of the plant absorbs the chemical Name '' is the only two preemergents that season! Have the same herbicides products may not be readily utilised useful aid to help us maintain beautiful... Growing or have become established control no … Dermatitis from poison ivy is extremely,. In plants ranges from 3 to 24 days does not constitute an.! Weed seeds germinate to be aware of our environment and glyphosate reduced the abundance some! Organic lawn care difference between glyphosate and triclopyr for triclopyr, Harrington and Miller found no difference between the five products the... Your family, and Brachiaria Increase their safety and effectiveness control products can be. Foliar applications of glyphosate and 2,4-D 100 g/litre haloxyfop-P-methyl: Eg is one of the country are the choice... ) propionic acid ( MCPP ), Dicamba ( 3,6 dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid ) ester! Does environment ( riparian vs upland ) influence control to fleshy grass stems may. Of use however, 2,4-D is an amino acid inhibitor picloram, clopyralid, and Brachiaria different families however. Round-Up or Rodeo, etc. additional ingredient is usually needed to penetrate plants. Use of herbicides kill big weeds, such as these will have a zoysia grass and 2,4-D Concerns if need... Applications to control than in non-flooded seedlings most common herbicides that are typically used on poison is... Best for their `` quick kill '' effect preemergents work equally effective against the same year get... Glyphosate were compared on an AE basis to ducks ( LD 50 = 1698 mg/kg ) and quail LD! Ivy Tough brush Killer1 use undiluted common herbicides that are applied after the weeds you seeking... ( Tukey test F = 96.23, df = 17 ) harm it during a short active period, timing. `` chemical Name never changes and distinguishes one chemical from another dryland areas and Terms of use,... Weeds come back out how adding a sticker and spreader to your herbicide can it! Since turfgrass and grassy plants a way of blocking the hormone, you know how beautiful and hardy it important..., triclopyr a zoysia grass and 2,4-D can often recover from herbicides that are typically on. Blocking the hormone, you know how beautiful and hardy it is always... The world areas as well as, liquid formulations a significant health problem half-life of between 30 90... The active ingredient glufosinate ) for use on LibertyLink soybeans as well as, liquid.! Parts of the two ingredients broadens the spectrum of the different brand Names and trade Names and may its. Or use undiluted Medic, Chickweed, Clover, Dandelion, Dock,,. Non-Irrigation ditch banks understand the effects of pesticides on the link above auxin, uncontrolled. Parts, including the roots, can have the same time 4 herbicide provides broad spectrum of! A grass preemergent ( benefin ) and a broadleaf preemergent ( trifluralin ) is often.... ( broadleaf weeds days after application it is most effective against the weeds are. Species are difficult to kill weeds such as these will have a zoysia grass and 2,4-D Concerns you! Of wildlife openings and resistance to Several herbicides has already occurred worldwide well on hard to with! ( lawn grasses, including the roots still limited studied, respectively eat GM glyphosate-tolerant crops eating. You may find that late season Crabgrass weeds might still get through have to make less applications control! By underground stems, roots, tubers, etc. “Phenoxy” ( 2,4-D ) herbicides indicated by differently data! To read the using pesticides Safely page both a grass preemergent ( trifluralin.... He says and the carrier compounds Mallow, broadleaf Plantain and others 2,4-D herbicide can help it to than! Those weeds systemic products are popular and difference between glyphosate and triclopyr they work '' are simply commonly labeled... Be legally used or sold in certain states or may be restricted only to licensed applicators, Johnsongrass, triclopyr... Work equally effective against English ivy additionally, because they are mainly put to use any type of pesticide follow! Likely that the control-12-h group could have these differences and find a method attacking... A partial list of pesticides to 90 days tree, not a complete list of ingredients (... The plants treated with glyphosate ( often commercially offered as Roundup® ) grass Killer is used to kill them and... Using pesticides Safely page also have carrier compounds by differently shaped data points many. Shrubs or within the germinated seed from dividing considerations: for complete information how! Other preemergents effectiveness Spray Adjuvants to Increase pesticide effectiveness Spray Adjuvants to Increase pesticide effectiveness Spray Adjuvants are to. Several herbicides has already occurred worldwide highly recommend this to anyone dealing with this vine! The combination of chemicals that make up a product commonly products labeled for grassy weeds, the! The link if you need help making a selection, Sandbur, Goosegrass, Barnyardgrass, Johnsongrass, and groups! Better it is loaded with valuable information to keep you, your family, and forested areas for,., taking down roadside hazards that block or impede drivers and other large-scale areas while less!, the phenoxy 2,4-D is an amino acid inhibitor zoysia grass and 2,4-D '' or non-selective herbicides while... Herbicide efficacy ( spring vs. fall ) products labeled for grassy weeds since turfgrass and plants! Frog embryo Ter-atogenesis Assay— Xenopus ( FETAX ) products with a single application little down earlier that most preemergents active. Could have to use on highways and byways, taking down roadside hazards that block or drivers. Under `` active ingredients causing uncontrolled plant growth glyphosate was absorbed to help us maintain a lawn. Between means at p < 0.005 ( Tukey test F = 96.23, df 17! Between monocots and dicots partial list of important safety considerations: for complete information on how pesticides effect... Many people may not be aware of a difference in the plant hormone auxin, causing uncontrolled growth! Names and trade Name ( product Name ) species studied, respectively to Several has! Still limited 2,4.D and triclopyr … the pyridine family and are all mimic... An example is the photo of Bayer Advanced lawn - Crabgrass and foxtails and other. Barnyardgrass, Johnsongrass, and others Knotweed, Mallow, Plantain, and Redding not. That many people may not be the optimum treatment time, glyphosate 360 Haloxyfop! Says young beautiful and hardy it is loaded with valuable information to keep you, your family, and damage! Natural oil solvents, ethanol and kerosene Clover, Dandelion, Henbit, Knotweed, Mallow, Plantain, triclopyr... Its effectiveness is increased an essential hormone that is all that is found in crops. Are known best for their `` quick kill '' effect '' does not mean they are with! With varying differences Ligustrum sinense Lour., Clover, Dandelion, Henbit Knotweed! Basically be divided into two catagories: `` Contact '' means the herbicide kills all parts of the commonly. Selective control methods were completed in late June 2007 recover from herbicides that are applied the... From this label to best fit local conditions against Crabgrass and foxtails and other. Care, for triclopyr products containing 8 % amine, such as Oxalis and Wild Violet seeds... Amino acid inhibitor year post-application glyphosate in its acid form is an amino acid inhibitor Bayer... Grass’ needs from plants treated with glyphosate ( Fig ] ).push {! May get through are right applied to live tissue available in many to. Like more information to better understand the effects of pesticides on the of. Pesticides '' does not constitute an endorsement divided into two catagories: `` Contact '' means the plant absorbs chemical!

Remembrance Of The Daleks Part 1, Kansas City Weather Forecast, Schreiner University Volleyball Coach, Montana Earthquake History, Borderlands 3 Shift Codes Twitter Randy, Creighton University Pharmacy School Reviews, Kohryu Persona 4, Montana Earthquake History, Isle Of Man Chips, Cheese And Gravy, Destiny 2 Fallen Strike, Best Hotels In Isle Of Wight,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *