factors affecting soil microbial biomass
Six organic materials (WS: wheat straw, CS: corn straw, WR: wheat root, CR: corn root, PM: pig manure, CM: cattle manure), and three contrasting soils (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem) were chosen. The lignin content of organic materials significantly influenced H’ and D at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05). The readings at 96 h incubation collected by Microlog Rel. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g003. Soil type was the main plot factor and organic material was the subplot factor in a split-plot design with six replicates; three replicates were sampled at the end of the 1st month, and the other three replicates were sampled at the end of the 12th month. The extraction of non-fumigated soil was the same as that of the fumigated soil. The chemical characteristics of these organic materials were shown in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571298), and the International (Regional) Joint Research Program (41620104006). Soil clay, silt and sand were determined by the pipette method. However, excess moisture content (above optimal level) in the soil is detrimental to the growth and survival of microbial cells in the soil. It was associated with increased utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and amine in Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol, and carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids and polymer in Luvic Phaeozem. In agricultural systems, the return of organic materials to the soil is the most prevalent practice to maintain or improve soil fertility. Both organic material quality and soil type affected soil microbial characteristics. ODR is affected by several factors. Generally, soil N immobilization occurred with organic materials amendment [47, 51]. You are currently offline. Soil pH was determined in water (soil: water = 1: 2.5). Among all enzymes in the soil environment, soil dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.) After the easily available C was exhausted, soil properties regulated the microbial functional diversity, and the main parameters of soil properties were soil organic C and clay content. High soil N content negatively affected soil microbial communities and led to a decrease in the microbial functional diversity by altering the supply and quality of organic matter [27, 62]; which resulted in significantly lower Shannon index in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem than that in Calcaric Cambisol. To evaluate the primary factors influencing microbial parameters, we analyzed MBC, MBN, AWCD, H’, D and U using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with soil and organic material types as independent factors and permitted to interact. The high precipitation in the study site would leach the soluble acid ions into the litter bags, thus limiting organic matter availability and inhibiting microbial metabolism (Fig 1) [63–64]. The C/N ratio and N content of organic materials significantly affected the MBC and MBN at the end of the 1st and 12th months (P < 0.05), and soil clay significantly affected MBC at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05, Table 5). Soil microbial biomass: A key soil driver in management of ecosystem functioning. Conceptualization, Carbon sources can provide energy for microorganisms [46–47], and microorganisms can grow rapidly when they encounter abundant C sources, e.g., the significant increase in MBC in organic materials amendment treatments when compared with the control treatment in the three soils at the end of the 1st month (Fig 2). Ferralic Cambisol is found in the subtropical region with an acidic soil environment , Calcaric Cambisol is found in the warm temperate region with a weak basic or neutral soil environment, and Calcaric Cambiso is found in the cold temperate region with a weak acidic or neutral soil environment. The correlations between different abiotic factors and microbial groups described in this manuscript indicate both the complexity of the soil environment and its sensitivity to various stimuli. Ling Li. Soils with more clay generally have a higher microbial biomass as they retain more water and often contain more organic C (figure 4). Corg, N) are controlled by factors such as climate, vegetation and relief even on a small scale. The quality of organic materials is vital to maintain the microbial functional diversity because of the utilization of labile C or recalcitrant C by distinct microbial communities . Abstract. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and 15- to 30-cm soil layers were investigated by making chemical and biological measurements in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, Northeast China, during the growing season of 2008 in stands of NSF and Larix olgensis plantation (LOP). WS, wheat straw; CS, corn straw; WR, wheat root; CR, corn root; PM, pig manure; CM, cattle manure. Generally, soils with high SOC content had high microbial biomass [25–26, 53–54], and nutritional stress might occur when SOC was less than 1% . We thank Catherine Dandie, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript. Although manures, with low C/N ratio and high nitrogen content, significantly increased microbial biomass when compared with crop residues at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05), the crop residues significantly increased the microbial biomass when compared with manures at the end of the 12th month (P < 0.05). In each soil, seven treatments were established as follows: (1) soil-only (control); (2) soil + WS; (3) soil + CS; (4) soil + WR; (5) soil + CR; (6) soil + PM; (7) soil + CM. Soil parent material provides the basic nutritional environment for development of the microbial community [22–23], and during soil formation the soil microbial communities can be changed [19, 21]. The WS and WR treatments significantly increased the AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indices in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem when compared with the control, and all organic material treatments increased the functional diversity indices in Calcaric Cambisol when compared with the control (P < 0.05, Fig 3B, 3D, 3F and 3H). The average well color development (AWCD) and the functional diversity indices including Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices were often used to investigate the general structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities [13, 24]. Müller et al. Total fiber content of organic material (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) was determined by the method described by van Soest . Soil total K and available K were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The soil physicochemical properties were shown in Table 1 and the average monthly rainfall and temperature of the study site during the sampling period were shown in Fig 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g001. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of soil properties, chemical characteristics of organic material, and the above microbial parameters among organic material treatments at each soil. Overall, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity together represent the fundamental parameters of soil microorganisms, and were considered to be the most sensitive indicators of management effects on soil biological properties [8, 12]. When compared with the other two soils, Luvic Phaeozem soil had the highest SOC content (Table 1) and significantly lower functional diversity indices at both sampling dates (Fig 3), and the reasons were that (1) Luvic Phaeozem per se had the lowest functional diversity as shown the control treatment (Fig 3), (2) soil with high organic matter has sufficient available C sources for microbial assimilation, and showed reduced assimilation of exogenous C sources by microbes when compared with the Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol with lower organic matter content [13, 65]. The integrated effect of soil type and organic material amendment significantly (P < 0.05) affected the microbial functional diversity. Microbially mediated processes in constructed wetlands are mainly dependent on hydraulic conditions, wastewater properties, including substrate and nutrient quality and availability, filter material or soil type, plants, and different environmental factors. Roles Soil properties, such as parent material, soil organic matter, pH and clay content can also influence soil microbial biomass and functional diversity [19–21]. 1. Project administration, The analysis of soil microbial characteristics can indicate the status of soil fertility and ecosystem function. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Part of the fresh soil in the bag was taken to determine microbial CLPPs, MBC and MBN, while the remaining soil was air-dried to determine soil organic C (SOC), total N, and pH. All the organic materials were oven-dried at 60°C, and passed through a 2-mm sieve. The Calcaric Cambisol developed from alluvial sediments of the Yellow River was located in Yuanyang County, Henan Province; this region has a temperate sub-humid climate, with an annual average temperature of 14.5°C and an average annual rainfall of 450–600 mm. At the end of the 1st month, soil clay content significantly influenced AWCD and U, pH significantly influenced D, and total nitrogen significantly influenced H’ (P < 0.05). Microbial biomass is within similar ranges in both horizontal and vertical subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands. Soil microbial biomass represents the amount of microbes in soil, and was successfully used to detect short-term changes in soil functioning to predict organic C accumulation in soil under organic management . The amount of different organic materials in each bag was described in S1 Table. A total of 126 nylon bags (20 × 15 cm2, 0.038 mm mesh size) with a special plastic label were randomly buried in two 1.5 × 1.0 m2 experimental plots at 10 cm depth of Ferralic Cambisol in a uniform soil fertility field in Qiyang County, with one plot used for each sampling date. In China, the Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem are the typical intensive cropland soils. Soil enzyme activities vary seasonally and have been related to soil physico-chemical properties, the structure of the microbial community, vegetation, disturbance, and succession, etc. As the experiment proceeded, the soil microbial community in Calcaric Cambisol adapted to the experimental environment, and the low nutrient content in Calcaric Cambisol may encourage the microbes to assimilate exogenous C resources from the added organic materials [13, 65]; hence, significantly higher microbial functional diversity indices were found in Calcaric Cambisol at the end of the 12th month when compared with those in the 1st month. No, Is the Subject Area "Crops" applicable to this article? Yes Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. 4.2 software were expressed by four parameters [7, 11, 36–37]: (1) AWCD for the metabolic activity of the soil bacterial community, (2) Shannon index (H’) for the species richness of the bacterial community, (3) Simpson index (D) for the most common species in the community, and (4) McIntosh index (U) for the species evenness of the community. Copyright: © 2018 Li et al. And little information was focused on the effects of soil pH on AWCD, McIntosh index and Simpson index. Yes Conceptualization, These results suggest that the application of crop straw is a long-term effective measure to increase microbial biomass, and can further induce the changes of soil properties to regulate soil microbial community. Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. here. Nevertheless, at the end of the 12th month (Fig 2) the crop residue amendments with high C/N ratio induced significantly higher MBC and MBN than the manure amendments. Factors affecting microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity in apple orchard soils with heavy metal accumulation Author(s) ... except for As, increased significantly with decreasing soil pH. Rainfall is usually the limiting factor for microbial biomass in southern Australia (figure 2). Organic material quality explained 29.5–50.9% of the variance in MBC and MBN when compared with the minor role of soil type (1.4–9.3%) at the end of the 1st and 12th months, and C/N ratio and total N of organic material were the main parameters. 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